The Theatre                                
Total capacity 2200                 dancers.jpginsideswan.jpg
 
           
Groundlings - Yard 1100   Gallery/yard average 3/2 - To allow for occupancy, see below                    
Gallery 770                              
Seats 330                              
Entrance (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence Everyone pays this penny                
Gallery  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Seating  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Cushion  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Ale, oranges, pies (net in decimal new pence) 0.83   decimal equivalent of   2 old pence                    
Take up of cushions and extras 20.00%   a % factor for  the number of playwatchers spending a bit on extras. The one I twisted to get exactly 20.              
Occupancy 55%   Overall rate of occupancy - houses tended to be full for popular titles                    
                                 
Income from theatre performance                                
Tickets 8.32   http://pix.leadbetter.org/d-day-2014                        
Extras 1.51                              
Total 9.83                              
Total tickets sold 278,300                              
                                 
Performances per year 230   200 - 230 used by Gurr and Forse                        
Court performances 12                              
Charge for court performances 20                              
Income from court performance 240   About 20 per performance. There is a receipt for 103 for playing Hampton Court in 1603                
Income from public performances 2,261.19                              
Total income from performance 2,501.19                              
                                 
Income from publications and other sources 20   Plays sold to printers                          
                                 
Total Income 2,541.19                              
                                 
Fixed costs                                
Rent 160.42   Half the take from the galleries.                        
Establishment 100   Other fixed costs associated with leases, rents, legal overheads                    
Wardrobe and Props 200                              
Total Fixed costs 460.42   These are high but this is the part of a business plan where everyone underestimates.                 
                                 
Variable costs                                
Number of jobbing actors on payroll 10                              
Number of backstage hands 6                              
Lead actors salaries 254.12   Based on 1/ 50 th of the gross, for simplicity of calculation and  5 actors            
Jobbing actor's salaries 290.40   rate per performance 12 old pence                      
Backstage salaries 110.40   rate per performance 8 old pence                      
Extras salaries  110.40   equal to backstage employee costs                        
Number of new plays commissioned 15   Ticket premium of 1d on new plays                        
Performing rights 105.00   Money paid for new plays 7% of plays are new plays                    
Taxes, bribes, grease 30.00                              
Registration fees 30.00   Money taken by The Master of the Revels and anyone else                    
Other, playbills, printing mrketing 100.00   Again high, but again realistic, 15% the variable costs are unspecific                    
Total variable costs 1,030.32   On the basis of 230 performance per year, this gives an all-up cost of 6.48 Gurr and Forse use a figure of 2.00             
                                 
Available for sharing 1,050.45                              
                                 
Shares for sharers and lead actors                                
Burbage Brothers (each) 262.61   50 % shared between them, possibly equally                       
Other Stakeholders 420.18                              
Shakespeare 105.05   Will's one tenth share                          
Shareholders total 1,050.45                              
                                 
Annual nett profit -   This is an increasing popular modern method of avoiding corporation tax. Share all the money out, after investment requirements, and there's no profit.        
The Globe                                
Total capacity 3000                              
Groundlings - Yard 1200   Gallery/yard average 3/2 - To allow for occupancy, see below                    
Gallery 1200                              
Seats 500                              
Private Boxes 100   Choose your number for the upper crust element of the audience                    
Entrance (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence Everyone pays this penny                
Gallery  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Seating  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Private Boxes 2.50   decimal equivalent of   6 old pence                    
Cushion  (in decimal new pence) 0.42   decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Ale, oranges, pies (net in decimal new pence) 0.83   decimal equivalent of   2 old pence                    
Take up of cushions and extras 30.00%   a % factor for  the number of playwatchers spending a bit more.                     
Occupancy 60%   Overall rate of occupancy - houses tended to be full for Will's plays, 'scarce defraying the cost' for others. But it was the most popular entertainment in Europe at the time. globetheatre1.jpg
 
                 
                                 
Income from theatre performance                                
Tickets 14.25                              
Extras 2.55                              
Total 16.80                              
                                 
Performances per year 200   200-230  used by Gurr and Forse                        
Court performances 15                              
Charge for court performances 20   About 20 per performance. There is a receipt for 103 for playing Hampton Court in 1603                
Income from court performance 300                              
Income from public performances 3,465.00                              
Total income from performance 3,765.00                              
                                 
Income from publications 10   Plays sold to printers                          
                                 
Total Income 3,775.00                              
                                 
Fixed costs                                
Half the Gallery income 250   Rent. Housekeeper's income.                        
Theatre and Buildings 250   Other fixed costs associated with leases, rents, legal overheads                    
Wardrobe and Props 400                              
Total Fixed costs 650                              
                                 
Variable costs                                
Number of jobbing actors on payroll 10                              
Number of backstage hands 6                              
Leading actors shares 377.50   Based on 1/ 50 th of the gross, for simplicity of calculation and  5 actors            
Jobbing actor's salaries 240.00   rate per performance 12 old pence                      
Backstage salaries 72.00   rate per performance 6 old pence                      
Extras salaries  72.00   equal to backstage employee costs                        
Number of new plays commissioned 15   Ticket premium of 1d on new plays                        
Performing rights 225.00   Money paid for new plays                          
Taxes, bribes, grease 30.00                              
Registration fees 40.00   Money taken by The Master of the Revels and anyone else                    
Other 50.00   Again high, but again realistic, half the variable costs are unspecific                    
Total variable costs 1,121.50                              
                                 
Available for sharing 2,003.50                              
                                 
Shares for sharers and lead actors                                
Burbage Brothers (each) 500.88   50 % shared between them, possibly equally but Richard's brother may have been the one with business acumen            
Other stakeholders (each) 166.96   One twelfth shares, of which Will held one                      
Housekeeper's share 50.00   Half the gallery was paid to the five housekeepers which included Will. Not included in total                
Shakespeare 166.96   After 1594, the Globe is rebuilt and Will's share increases as he becomes a householder. See Note 1              
Total Variable costs 2,003.50   On the basis of 230 performance per year, this gives an all-up cost of 7.70 Gurr and Forse use a figure of 2.00             
                                 
Annual nett profit -   This is an increasing popular modern method of avoiding corporation tax. Share all the money out, after investment requirements, and there's no profit.        
The Blackfriars     A lot of theater historians now think that the King's Men weren't actually able to start playing regularly in the Blackfriars until the second half of 1610, despite having signed the lease in August 1608.                          
Total capacity 610                              
The stalls 300   Capacity varies from 600-1000                        
Gallery 300                              
Stage seating 10   Choose your number for the upper crust element of the audience                    
  100                              
Entrance (in decimal new pence) 2.50 p decimal equivalent of   6 old pence Entry costs significantly higher.              
Gallery  (in decimal new pence) 3.33 p decimal equivalent of   8 old pence                    
Stage Seating  (in decimal new pence) 10.00 p decimal equivalent of   24 old pence                    
                                 
Cushion  (in decimal new pence) 0.42 p decimal equivalent of   1 old pence                    
Ale, oranges, pies (net in decimal new pence) 0.83 p decimal equivalent of   2 old pence                    
Take up of cushions and extras 10.00%   a % factor for  the number of playwatchers spending a bit more.                     
Occupancy 85%   Overall rate of occupancy - houses tended to be full for Will's plays, 'scarce defraying the cost' for others. But it was the most popular entertainment in Europe at the time.    
      Blackfriars rates of occupancy may have been higher if some of the claims of its profitability are accurate              
Income from theatre performance                                
Tickets 15.73                              
Extras 5.19                              
Total 20.91   There is some evidence that a single performance could generate a sharer's income of 13.00                
      which would require an income, per performance, based on these figures of 25.64 18% below 33% represents a close estimate with the current margin for error  
Performances per year 200   200-230 used by Gurr and Forse movie::file://localhost/Users/mike/Downloads/SiL.m4v1024px-Blackfriars_theatre_conjectural_reconstruction_1921.png
 
                       
Court performances 15                              
Charge for court performances 20   About 20 per performance. There is a receipt for 103 for playing Hampton Court in 1603                
Income from court performance 300                              
Income from public performances 4,182.21                              
Total income from performance 4,482.21                              
                                 
Income from publications 10   Plays sold to printers                          
                                 
Total Income 4,492.21                              
                                 
Fixed costs                                
Half the Gallery income 375   Rent. Housekeeper's income.                        
Theatre and Buildings 250   Other fixed costs associated with leases, rents, legal overheads                    
Wardrobe and Props 400                              
Total Fixed costs 650                              
                                 
Variable costs                                
Lighting 166.67 200 candles per peformance at   1 d each 0.83 per performance              
Musicians 50 5 musicians   12 d each 10.00 p.a. each musician              
Number of jobbing actors on payroll 10                              
Number of backstage hands 8   More backstage activity for new effects                        
Leading actors shares 239.58   Based on 1/ 50 th of the gross, for simplicity of calculation and  5 actors            
Jobbing actor's salaries 240.00   rate per performance 12 old pence                      
Backstage salaries 96.00   rate per performance 6 old pence                      
Extras salaries  96.00   equal to backstage employee costs                        
Number of new plays commissioned 15   Ticket premium of 1d on new plays                        
Performing rights 225.00   Money paid for new plays                          
Taxes, bribes, grease 50.00   Includes 20 to rent Paul's theatre and keep it shut                      
Registration fees 40.00   Money taken by The Master of the Revels and anyone else                    
Other 250.00   Again high.                          
Total variable costs 1,251.58                              
                                 
Available for sharing 2,590.63                              
                                 
Shares for sharers and lead actors                                
Burbage Brothers (each) 647.66   50 % shared between them reflecting the additional equity created by the 600 purchase in 1596 by the Burbages            
Other stakeholders (each) 323.83   50% shared between other four shareholders                      
Housekeeper's share 62.50   Half the gallery was paid to the six housekeepers which included Will.                  
Shakespeare 386.33   After 1594, the Globe is rebuilt and Will's share increases as he becomes a householder. See Note 1              
Total Dividend 2,590.63   On the basis of 230 performance per year, this gives an all-up cost of 8.27 Gurr and Forse use a figure of 2.00             
                                 
Annual nett profit -   This is an increasing popular modern method of avoiding corporation tax. Share all the money out, after investment requirements, and there's no profit.        
Variables in calculations can be changed here.                                
                             
Writing Income                            
Income from V &A 10                          
Income from RoL 20                          
Subsequent editions fee 2                          
Inflation                            
Early play copyright 7                          
Late play copyright 15 Unused in income as current assupmtion is no payments for plays made after 1594, when he gets his shareholding.        
Early career reduction 0.5                          
Earnings reduced in 1592 (plague-related) 0.25 1593 wiped out earnings as the playhouses were shut throughout. The plague started the year before and ended the year after                        
Earnings reduced in 1594 (plague-related) 0.25 Some income from travelling outside London was earned. These variables will reduce the relevant year's income                        
Earnings reduced in 1604 (plague-related) 0.5 Serious outbreak                      
Earnings reduced in 1608 (plague-related) 0.7 Serious outbreak                      
Earnings reduced in 1609 (plague-related) 0.7 Serious outbreak                      
                             
% of Globe housekeeper income retained 0.4                          
% of Blackfriars housekeeper income retained 0.4                          
New play premium 0.42                          
% new plays 0.075 0.03125                        
                             
         
Sanity tests                                
A court case over shares. Witter tries to recover his dead wife's interest in The Globe in 1605. She acquired it from Augustine Philips, whose share gave him 20% of the rental income and 25% of 50% (1/8th) of the gallery income. This produced an income of 30-45 a year and Condell, as a gesture of friendship, lent 50 to Ann, Augustine's widow as security on this agreement. The disputed share's yearly value calculated from the numbers above plus his share of the rental income, given in the case as 7/5/0d. 39.00
Between 1601 and 1608, Robert Keysar considers buying John Marston's share of the Blackfriars Children Company for 100 Given the much smaller capacity of the Blackfriars, purchasing Marstons' share at this value suggests an annual income of at least 25. Will's Blackfriars income was significantly larger since he was a housekeeper. In the numbers above, the equivalent of Marston's share is calculated at: 23.48